What Is a Divorce?
UPDATED: June 19, 2018
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Divorce is the permanent legal end of a marriage. During a divorce, either the parties themselves or a court decides how the couple’s property shall be divided. Additionally, any child related issues, including support and visitation, are also decided. The end result is a public court document that officially ends the marriage and leaves both spouses to move on with their lives or remarry, if desired.
The Divorce Process
The divorce process depends on two factors including the state and the type of marriage license the couple possesses. The process in all states begins the same way. First, one or both of the spouses decide to end the marriage and fill out divorce paperwork. The paperwork is filed with the court and a hearing date is set. If your marriage license is a standard marriage and you do not have any children, then the court simply goes through with a no-fault divorce. This process typically takes between 60 and 90 days from filing.
Certain circumstances can make the divorce process more complicated and longer. One common hurdle in modern divorce proceedings is couples who possess a covenant marriage license. Under this license, the couple can only file for a divorce for certain specific reasons such as abuse and infidelity. Additionally, states require that the couple undergo marriage counseling in a final attempt to resolve the marriage. If any of this is not completed, the court will not sign off on the divorce.
Child Custody and Child Support
If a couple had any children during the marriage, the divorce process is further lengthened unless the couple can agree amongst themselves what will be best for the children regarding child custody. Some state courts require that the parents undergo counseling, which provides information on parenting after a divorce.
Many state courts encourage parents to reach an agreement about what is best for the children and some even provide mediation services where the court provides the mediator, who helps the parents resolve their differences.
If any allegations of child abuse were brought up, then parents must often undergo a formal investigation by a social worker before custody is decided.
The court has the obligation to decide the custodial arrangement for children after the divorce. Whereas it once was commonplace to consistently give children to their mothers, courts have moved away from this system in the interest of granting fathers equal rights to parent their children. Modernly, most courts award joint custody, splitting custody down the middle. In situations where parents are living in different states or there are other circumstances, courts will consider granting one parent more time with the children than the other. It is rare that all custodial rights are granted to just one parent.
The other obligation of the court during the divorce is deciding whether child support payments are required. Child support is court ordered payments made by the non-custodial parent to assist in meeting the needs of children. In determining the amount of child support, the court will require a complete audit of all income sources of both spouses. The court may also evaluate the primary custodial parent’s wage earning ability as well as the overall amount required to care for the children.
Property Division During Divorce
While every state is different, the predominant rule is that all property, assets, and debt acquired during a marriage are divided equally between the couple. This means that every bank account, credit card, retirement account, vehicle, and house is added together and the value of everything divided equally. It is then up to the couple to decide whether their assets will be sold and the money divided or if items can be divided equally without liquidation.
Generally, however, property aquired before the marriage will be considered separate property. This includes property purchased with earnings prior to the marriage. In addition, inheritances are separate property. As long as separate property is not mingled in bank accounts with earnings or other property that would be considered joint property, it will remain separate.
If one or both spouses were in the military and were married for 10 years or more, then the military pension and benefits must have both names placed on it and the amount paid adjusted for both people. This also holds true for social security benefits, even if one spouse was not working during the marriage.
Taxes After Divorce
Obtaining a divorce, especially with children involved, also impacts your yearly taxes. Instead of filing jointly, you’ll be required to file as a single individual. Additionally, only one parent can claim a child as a dependant for the tax credit. If the parents have two children, they typically each claim one child from year to year. If there is only one child, or an odd amount, one parent will claim the extra on odd years and the other on even years. Other times, courts consider the effects of certain tax situations on the money that will be available to the family as a whole. If one parent makes significantly more than the other, strategically decreasing their tax burden to allow more money for care and support of the children is a common practice in family court.